New: Alexander the Great in India - A Reconstruction of Cleitarchus
The most influential account of the career of Alexander the Great was penned by Cleitarchus the son of Deinon, a Greek writing in Alexandria in the decades after Alexander's death. Most of the surviving ancient texts on Alexander were more or less based upon his work, but every single copy of the original was discarded or destroyed in antiquity. To what extent might it be possible to reconstruct it from the secondary writings? This book argues that a considerable degree of reconstruction is feasible and demonstrates the point by presenting a full reconstruction of Cleitarchus' version of Alexander's campaigns in India, the first time that this has been done.
Click HERE for details!
Previously published: The Quest for the Tomb of Alexander the Great
In these pages the author lays bare the forgotten secrets of one of the greatest mysteries bequeathed to us by the ancient world. His new perspective will surely fascinate any reader with a sense of curiosity about the past. It remains significantly possible that the fate of Alexander's tomb will turn out to be the greatest archaeological story of the 21st century. In addition, the author's published academic articles on the subject of Alexander's mysterious death and elusive tomb are reproduced as appendices. Over 80 illustrations, 324 pages.
Click HERE to download the Press Release for The Quest for the Tomb of Alexander the Great in a 162kByte pdf file.
Click HERE for details!
|November 2018 – Lecture Tour of Australia|
Andrew Chugg went on a Lecture Tour of Australia between 20th
– 30th October 2018 including presentations in Perth,
Melbourne and Sydney sponsored by the Australian Institute of Macedonian
and organised by Vasilis Sarafidis of Monash University. In Perth, where
he was hosted by Savvas Papasavvas and Constatine Berbatis, he presented
during the evening of 22/10/18 on The Lost Tomb of Alexander the Great
(Perth photo) and also gave a talk on the same subject earlier in the
day at St Andrew’s Grammar School in the city. At Melbourne he visited
La Trobe University on 24/10/18, where he gave a seminar on The
Occupancy of the Amphipolis Tomb (see photo) in the afternoon. On
Thursday 25th October he visited Alphington Grammar School
and presented on The Lost Tomb of Alexander the Great to Year 7 pupils
and in the evening he gave his main presentation on The Occupancy of the
Amphipolis Tomb at Ithaca House in central Melbourne. There were also
radio interviews in Melbourne with Emily Kazakos on 3XY Radio Hellas and
with Panos Apostolou on SBS Radio. Moving on to Sydney, he was
interviewed for an hour on 2MM radio by John Theodoridis (photo of radio
studio) during the afternoon of Saturday 27th October. In the
evening he presented at the AHEPA Hall in Rockdale on The Lost Tomb of
Alexander the Great hosted by George Lianos. Andrew was very pleased to
encounter large, enthusiastic and inquisitive audiences everywhere in
gorgeous Australia and would like to thank all his hosts for their
sterling support during the tour.
Click on the link to read one of the presentations: Occupancy Amphipolis Tomb Oct 2018.pdf.
|May 2018 – Lack of Progress on the Amphipolis Tomb|
In an interview for the Ancient History Review Andrew Chugg has observed that, “It would be lovely to think that the Greek government has been bravely struggling to find funding for further investigation of the Amphipolis Tomb in the teeth of the Greek financial crisis, but the circumstantial evidence suggests quite a different conclusion:
Despite neutral public statements, the practical reality is that the Greek government has thwarted all progress on the tomb. Without the crucial isotopic evidence on the skeletons, it is hard to take the identification of the tomb’s occupant forward. It is definitely not true that this tomb is any less important than it seemed at the time. It remains by far the grandest tomb ever built in Greece and the pebble mosaic and the sculptures are the finest we have from the era. It is quite obviously the tomb of somebody immensely important and there are very few possibilities.” Andrew has consistently advocated the candidacy of Olympias as the tomb’s principal occupant since August 2014.
LINK to the story: http://www.ancientworldreview.com/2018/04/new-greek-government-thwarted-all-progress-on-amphipolis-tomb-according-to-archaeologist-andrew-chug.html
|January 2018 – New Data on the Death of Alexander|
Andrew Chugg has finalised his paper on “Disease and the Death of Alexander the Great”, which will be published in the Proceedings of the Disease and the Ancient World Symposium hosted by Oxford University in September 2017. The conclusion is that Alexander was very probably killed by a species of mosquito called Anopheles Stephensi, which still kills tens of thousands of people each year nowadays. The paper will appear in 2019.
|September 2017 – Alexander’s Death Presentation at Oxford|
Andrew Chugg gave a paper on the topic of Disease and the Death of Alexander the Great at the Disease and the Ancient World Symposium on Saturday 23rd September at Green Templeton College in the University of Oxford. For a pdf of Andrew’s presentation please click here. The paper explains that the disease statistics from the British Army in Mesopotamia in 1916-18 are a good proxy for the experience of Alexander’s army and the king himself.
|February 2017 – New iTunes Podcasts on Alexander’s Tomb|
Andrew Chugg is interviewed by Patrick Garvey on the subject of the tomb of Alexander the Great in a new podcast for 2017 which is available via this webpage:https://soundcloud.com/ancient-heroes/alexander-the-greats-tomb or via iTunes at this link: https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/the-achilles-gene/id1135292842?mt=2
|September 2016 – New iTunes Podcasts on Alexander and his Divinity|
Andrew Chugg is one of several experts interviewed by Patrick Garvey for a set of three podcasts on Alexander the Great. The first episode deals with Alexander’s rivalry with Achilles, his mythical ancestor. The second considers Alexander’s visit to the oracle of Ammon at Siwa and its role in Alexander’s divinisation. The third podcast tackles the topic of Alexander’s relationship with his deputy, Hephaistion. All three episodes are available via this webpage as Alexander the Great, Parts I to III:http://ancientheroespodcast.com/blog/ or via iTunes using this link: https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/the-achilles-gene/id1135292842?mt=2
|March 2016 – Proof the Amphipolis Tomb is not Hephaistion’s|
The archaeological team has proposed that the Amphipolis Tomb was built to commemorate Hephaistion, the deputy and close personal friend of Alexander the Great, because they noticed rough inscriptions on two blocks that were found in the nearby river a hundred years ago, but which originally came from the wall of the tomb. They have interpreted these graffiti-inscriptions as reading ΠΑΡΕΛΑΒΟΝ ΗΦΑΙΣΤΙΩΝ ΑΝΤ, which could mean that the blocks were received (from the quarry?) for Hephaistion by Antigonus or Antipater. But Andrew Chugg has shown that the fact that the leading pi is missing off both blocks means that they were subsequently shortened in length to fit in the wall of the Amphipolis Tomb. This means that they were not quarried and dressed for the Amphipolis Tomb, but for a previous building project, which was abandoned before its construction. Therefore the Amphipolis Tomb is not Hephaistion’s monument, but the tomb of somebody hugely important and close to the Macedonian Royal Family, who would have inherited ownership of the blocks. This person must have died a few years after the death of Alexander, when the Hephaistion project would have been abandoned. For more details of this revelation, read Andrew Chugg’s latest article at this link: Proof that the Amphipolis Tomb was not built for Hephaistion? See also the news article spurred by this evidence on the Discovery News website here: http://news.discovery.com/history/inscription-spurs-debate-over-mysterious-greek-tomb-160302.htm
|March 2016 – Reconstructing a Frieze in the Amphipolis Tomb|
The archaeological team has proposed a rather exotic reconstruction of a badly damaged frieze found in the chamber of the Persephone mosaic high on its party wall with the burial chamber (1st image). They have suggested that the figures either side of a garlanded (sacrificial) bull might be centaurs. But in examining the original photos (2nd image) Andrew Chugg sees no sign of the hindquarters of these “centaurs” and disputes the interpretation of the supposed crescent-shaped gold ornaments hanging in front of their forequarters. Instead Andrew proposes a man and a woman in dancing poses to the left and right of the bull (3rd image) respectively. The woman (4th image) is dancing away from us and wearing a long dress with a peplos and a diagonal band across her back. The man (5th image) is dancing towards us and may also be wearing a diagonal strap and a sword (to perform the sacrifice?) There is also a tall tripod brazier and a Nike blowing a bugle on a ship’s prow. All these features and especially the Nike and the crimson belts worn by the human figures recall the Mysteries of Samothrace at which Alexander’s father, Philip II, met his mother, Olympias.
|Dec 2015 – For Whom was the Amphipolis Tomb constructed?|
The archaeological team responsible for the recent excavation campaigns at the Amphipolis Tomb gave a lecture on 30th September 2015 in which they presented evidence which they argued indicates that the monument was built on the orders of Alexander the Great to commemorate his Deputy and close personal friend Hephaistion Amyntoros. Surprisingly, this evidence was unrelated to their excavations, but based on graffiti on marble blocks robbed from the tomb in antiquity and found a century ago re-used in an ancient dam five miles south of the tomb. Hundreds of blocks were long ago found with hundreds of ancient graffiti, virtually all of which appeared to date to centuries after the blocks had been robbed. However, the archaelogists are seeking to argue that a particular pair of graffiti with strange monograms (see picture) containing some of the letters of Hephaistion’s name existed before the blocks were robbed from the tomb. Meanwhile, nearly a year after the bones of a woman of 60+ years of age that were discovered in the tomb were sent for isotopic analysis, an inscrutable silence is being maintained regarding the results. For more details of the thickening plot, read Andrew Chugg’s latest article at this link: Did the Amphipolis Tomb Commemorate Hephaistion?
|Sept 2015 – Now Available: Cleitarchus’s History of Alexander|
Andrew Chugg’s epic reconstruction of the History Concerning Alexander the Great by Cleitarchus of Alexandria is now published in its first edition. This highly influential account of the career of Alexander the Great was penned by Cleitarchus half a century after Alexander’s death. Most of the surviving ancient texts on Alexander were based upon this work, but every copy of the original was destroyed in antiquity. Now the entire book has been revived in an exciting reconstruction based upon an in-depth analysis of the surviving ancient works that it inspired. Here you will find Alexander revealed in a startling new light as a very human and believable individual, who drives and is then driven by a momentous cascade of events. Here you can rediscover the oldest and also the most authentic literary portrait of the king spanning all thirteen years of his astounding reign.
At the time of writing there is no definitive presentation of results by the Amphipolis archaeological team, but there are exciting indications that the dating evidence is stacking up at the early end of the range. Andrew Chugg has shown that previous work on the marble blocks from the peribolos wall indicates a late 4th century BC date and that a small-scale copy of the Amphipolis tomb (photo) dates to the middle of the 3rd century BC. Meanwhile, the Chief Archaeologist, Katerina Peristeri, has announced that the sealing took place before the Romans took over Macedon in 168BC. Her team had suggested a sealing in the 3rd century AD last November, so their revised conclusion is probably informed by their receipt of radiocarbon dates from the labs. If so, the date range is in the earliest bracket running from the mid-4th century BC to just after 200BC. Links to Andrew’s two latest articles on the Amphipolis tomb dealing with the dating issues are given below:The Carbon-14 Dating of the Amphipolis Tomb
|April 2015 - Reconstruction of Cleitarchus's History of Alexander|
|Andrew is reviewing the proof copies of the final and complete version of his reconstruction of the History Concerning Alexander the Great by Cleitarchus of Alexandria and the book is planned to be published around the middle of 2015. The wraparound cover (see image) is based on a sketch by the author of the mosaic recently discovered at Amphipolis. This depicts the abduction of Persephone by Hades in a chariot guided by Hermes, but Andrew has argued that the mosaicist intended that Persephone should be identified with Olympias, Hades with Philip II, Alexander's father, and the young Hermes with their son Alexander. This publication will complete a ten-year project to reconstruct Cleitarchus's lost work from surviving fragments and the finalised reconstruction runs to 400 pages.||
|April 2015 - Amphipolis Tomb update|
In January the Greek Ministry of Culture announced that parts of the skeletons of five individuals had been identified among the remains found in the cist tomb grave cut, but the most complete skeleton and the bones that predominantly occupied the grave cut itself (rather than the overlying layers of backfill) was assigned to a woman of at least sixty years of age (see photos). That result is highly consistent with Andrew Chugg's hypothesis that this is the tomb of Alexander's mother, Olympias. Strontium isotope ratio tests on the remains have been commissioned and may show the regions in which the deceased spent their lives. Olympias lived for a long time in Epirus across the mountains from Macedon. Radiocarbon testing of the bones should pin down their date to within a century or so. Andrew is also currently looking at other approaches to dating the tomb. Links to Andrew's latest three articles on the Amphipolis tomb are given below:An Identity Crisis for the Amphipolis Tomb
|April 2015 - Andrew Chugg's presentation on the subject of "Napoleon Bonaparte meets Alexander the Great in the French Campaign in Egypt"|
|Andrew gave this presentation at the NSREC Conference, July 14-18, 2014 in the Marriott Rive Gauche Hotel in Paris to an appreciative audience of hundreds of conference attendees (see photos). Andrew has since distributed a pdf version of his presentation to hundreds of academics via his academia.edu pages and he is now pleased to make it downloadable to visitors to this site via the following link: Napoleon Bonaparte meets Alexander the Great||
October 2014 - Tomb of Olympias found at Amphipolis?
Excitement surrounding the excavation of a tomb a stade (160m) in
diameter near ancient Amphipolis in Macedonia in Greece is reaching a
fever pitch. In August two monumental sphinxes were revealed above the
entrance to its underground chambers. In September a pair of caryatids
representing priestesses of Dionysus were discovered either side of the
passageway leading to its interior. In October a spectacular mosaic
depicting the Abduction of Persephone has been uncovered on the floor of
the chamber beyond the caryatids. Since early September Andrew Chugg has
been producing articles in the form of bulletins to explain these
discoveries and particularly to address the question of the identity of
the occupant of this enormous tomb in collaboration with the Greek
Reporter online newspaper and the Mediterraneo Antiguo website. Evidence
has accumulated to suggest that this may be the tomb of Olympias, the
mother of Alexander the Great, although this still cannot be confirmed
at the time of writing. It may be significant that the closest parallel
to the newly discovered sphinxes is another pair of sphinxes found by
Auguste Mariette at the Serapeum at Saqqara in Egypt. This is the site
that Andrew Chugg has put forward as the likely first tomb of Alexander,
prior to his body being relocated to Alexandria in the 3rd century BC.
It also appears that the figure of Hermes on the left of the mosaic may
double as a portrait of Alexander aged twenty. More thrilling
discoveries are expected imminently.
|July 2014 Andrew Chugg to present at NSREC Conference, July 14-18, 2014 in the Marriott Rive Gauche Hotel, Paris, on the subject of Napoleon Bonaparte meets Alexander the Great in the French Campaign in Egypt and Syria�|
Napoleon�s invasion of Egypt in 1798 eventually developed into a
military disaster with the destruction of the French fleet by Nelson
whilst it lay at anchor in Aboukir Bay and the later surrender of the
entire French Army of the Orient following the Battle of Alexandria in
1801. However the lasting legacy of the expedition has not proved to be
military exploits and adventurism but rather scholarly inquiries and
investigations, including the discovery of important artefacts such as
the Rosetta Stone and a sarcophagus said to have been used for the tomb
of Alexander the Great. The research performed by the expedition�s
scholars culminated in the publication of the magnificent multi-volume
Description de l�Egypte under Napoleon�s patronage in 1809. This talk
presents the astonishing story of Napoleon�s fifty intrepid �Savants�
and what they saw, heard and deduced during the Napoleonic occupation of
Egypt. But it also relates the yet more curious story of another two
centuries of further investigation, obfuscation and doubt, which has
only recently begun to veer towards vindication. Only in the new
millennium has it finally come to seem probable on the evidence that the
magnificent ancient sarcophagus now housed in the Egyptian hall of the
British Museum provides a unique physical connection between Alexander
the Great, Julius Caesar and Napoleon Bonaparte.
|Dec 2013 First Edition of Alexander the Great and the Conquest of the Persians due to be published in February 2014|
The penultimate part of Andrew Chugg�s reconstruction of the lost
History Concerning Alexander the Great by Cleitarchus of Alexandria
is due to be published in February 2014 in a print first edition. This
will comprise the fourth, fifth and sixth books of Cleitarchus� work
covering events from the Battle of Issus to the death of Darius.
Although some parts of the new book have been published before in an
electronic edition (Amazon Kindle), this will be the first publication
of the entire volume. It will also incorporate extensive analyses of
some of the key events that occurred within this crucial period of
Alexander�s career, such as a re-evaluation of the probable site of the
Battle of Gaugamela.
|Sept 2013 Alexander's Lovers sales exceed 1000 copies|
Sales of Andrew Chugg�s books on Alexander�s tomb exceeded 1000 copies
years ago, but in August 2013 sales of another of his books, Alexander�s
Lovers, also reached this landmark level. Furthermore, Alexander�s
Lover�s has done so exclusively via online outlets with minimal
publicity. The thumbnail shows the cover of the second edition of
Alexander�s Lovers, which was published in 2012.
|August 2013 Books 5 to 13 of the Cleitarchus Reconstruction now on Kindle|
The four completed volumes of Andrew Chugg�s reconstruction of the
History Concerning Alexander by Cleitarchus of Alexandria have now been
made available through Amazon�s Kindle. These volumes are: Alexander
the Great and the Defeat and Death of Darius (books 5& 6);
Alexander the Great in Afghanistan (books 7 to 9); Alexander the
Great in India (books 10 to 12); The Death of Alexander the Great
(book 13). Cleitarchus wrote his
influential account of Alexander�s reign in the 3rd century
BC, but it has been lost since antiquity. The reconstruction is based on
ancient texts that were themselves based upon Cleitarchus. See
|August 2013 Is Alexander entombed at Amphipolis in Macedonia?|
Excavations of a large artificial mound at Amphipolis in
Macedonia have been underway for some time. A circular peribolos
(enclosure wall) of 500m circumference has been uncovered and it is
anticipated that the core of the mound conceals the tomb of a
significant individual from the last quarter of the 4th
century BC. However, press speculation this Summer (e.g. The Mail on 23rd
here) that the
individual might be Alexander the Great is unwarranted. All the ancient
evidence suggests that Alexander was entombed in Egypt at that time. A
better guess for the Amphipolitan tomb would be Alexander�s Bodyguard,
Aristonous, who was lord of Amphipolis and who led the armies of
Alexander�s mother, Olympias, in her unsuccessful war against Cassander
|May 2013 Antique Statuettes of Alexander and the Amazon Queen|
A decade ago Andrew Chugg acquired an antique bronze statuette of
Alexander riding a horse (Bucephalus?), but the horse was unfortunately
missing. This year Andrew acquired a damaged pair of spelter statuettes
of Alexander and the Amazon Queen, Thalestris, which had evidently been
cast from bronze originals. The Alexander had been cast from the same
bronze as Andrew already owned. He was missing his right arm, but still
had his steed. Andrew has now therefore been able to mount his bronze
Alexander back on the spelter copy of his original horse (see
accompanying photo and more photos in the Alexander2 image gallery on
this site). This statuette is based on the representations of Alexander
produced by Charles le Brun, court painter to the Sun King (Louis XIV),
in the 1670�s. It may therefore date back to the early 18th
century. Jacques-Louis David�s equestrian portrait of Napoleon is very
similar and may have been inspired by this Alexander.
|March 2013 Alexander the Great and the Defeat and Death of Darius|
The fifth and sixth books of Andrew Chugg�s Reconstruction of
Cleitarchus were published on Amazon Kindle in February 2013. They cover
the period from the siege of Gaza to the death of Darius, including
Alexander�s visit to the Oracle of Ammon at the Siwa oasis, his
triumphant victory at Gaugamela and the razing of the palace at
Persepolis. The Amazon Kindle page is located here:
|December 2012 Famous Articles on Alexander�s Tomb Now Posted plus An Engraving of Alexander�s Marriage by Raphael|
The famous articles on Alexander�s tomb by Mahmoud Bey, Neroutsos Bey and Count Alexandre-Max de Zogheb have now been posted (in their original French in the Book Scans section of the Image Library of www.alexanderstomb.com) together with an English translation of a less well known Italian article from 1930 by Evaristo Breccia, a former Director of the Graeco-Roman Museum in Alexandria. Several antique engravings are also newly posted in the Alexander2 section of the Image Library, including a version of the gorgeous drawing of Alexander�s wedding to Roxane by Raphael.
The second edition of Alexander�s Lovers by Andrew Chugg is now available for download to Amazon�s Kindle devices at this page:This is the first time that any of Andrew Chugg�s books has been adapted for Kindle.
|March 2012 Second Edition of Alexander's Lovers Published|
A new edition of Alexander�s Lovers by Andrew Chugg is scheduled for publication in March 2012. This Second Edition is completely revised and updated and has been enhanced by the incorporation of a detailed discussion of Alexander�s deification and an in depth description and analysis of the funeral of Hephaistion. The length has increased from 220 to 260 pages with the addition of extra information on Hephaistion, Bagoas, Roxane, Stateira� see also www.alexanderslovers.com
|September 2011 - Mystery Files Episode on Alexander's Body|
The Mystery Files episode on Alexander the Great and the fate of his body featuring Andrew Chugg was premiered on schedule on the National Geographic channel in the UK on 7th June 2011 and has since been aired numerous times on this and other National Geographic channels around the world (e.g. Canada). The producers have set up a website at this link with biographies of the experts appearing in the program including Andrew Chugg: http://www.mysteryfiles.com/episodes/season-2/episode-17/alexander-the-great/
|May 2011 - Appearance on Mystery Files|
Andrew Chugg is expected to appear in the forthcoming Alexander episode
of the new series of the Mystery Files, which will premiere on the
National Geographic channel in the UK at 19:30 on 7th June 2011. Andrew
also appears briefly at 1 minute and 49 seconds into the trailer for the
new series, which has been posted by its producers, Parthenon
Entertainment, on Youtube at this link:
|April 2011 Alexander the Great in Afghanistan|
The next volume of Andrew Chugg�s reconstruction of The History Concerning Alexander by Cleitarchus of Alexandria will be published in May 2011 under the title: Alexander the Great in Afghanistan. The new book covers the period between the death of Darius and Alexander�s invasion of India. Details can be found on the Alexanderstomb Cleitarchus Reconstruction page at http://www.alexanderstomb.com/main/cleitarchus/index.html
|January 2011 Alexander the Great in Afghanistan|
A new video on Alexander the Great in Afghanistan is now posted on this site in preparation for the publication of the third part of Andrew Chugg�s reconstruction of the History Concerning Alexander by Cleitarchus of Alexandria. This part deals with events in the seventh, eighth and ninth years of Alexander�s reign, when the king was roving through the vast expanses of ancient Parthia, Aria, Arachosia, Bactria and Sogdiana. The cover of the new book may also now be revealed. It is based on an engraving from a series entitled the Principal Deeds of Alexander by the Italian Renaissance artist Antonio Tempesta published in 1608 and now in the author�s collection.
|November 2010 - Alexander the Great in Afghanistan|
The third part of Andrew Chugg�s reconstruction of the History Concerning Alexander by Cleitarchus of Alexandria is now scheduled for publication in mid-2011. This deals with events in the seventh, eighth and ninth years of Alexander�s reign and immediately precedes the events described in Alexander the Great in India (Books 10 to 12 of Cleitarchus). Alexander is roving through the vast expanses of ancient Parthia, Aria, Arachosia, Bactria and Sogdiana suffering many of the most testing trials of his career, including successive assassination attempts and multiple insurrections of the indigenous peoples.
|May 2010 - Developments|
Although there is still no significant progress on investigation of the remains in Venice, fascination with the history of Alexander in life and death continues to show a remarkable rejuvenation. Hits on this website have just reached 3 million and sales of its sponsored books on Alexander exceeded a thousand copies in March 2010. Meanwhile we continue to strengthen the resources disseminated by our site with the addition of many new items to the Image Library, including a fascinating set of plans of Thebes, Halicarnassus and Tyre drawn in 1802 in the AtG Related gallery, and a new video on the Death of Hephaistion.
|January 2010 - Publication of The Death of Alexander by Andrew Chugg|
The second part of Andrew Chugg�s reconstruction of the History Concerning Alexander by Cleitarchus of Alexandria has now been published. This deals with events from the end of Alexander the Great in India (the preceding book) through to Alexander�s death and the ensuing turmoil in Babylon. For more details see the Death of Alexander page on this site.
|December 2009 - Manfredi Publishes a Book on Alexander's Tomb|
Valerio Massimo Manfredi, the Italian author of a best-selling series of novels about Alexander, published a non-fiction account of the enigma of Alexander�s tomb in November (currently only available in Italian). Andrew Chugg�s research on the subject is much referenced and discussed from a sceptical point of view.
|November 2009 - Article on the possibility that Alexander's body is in Venice in Fenix magazine|
magazine Fenix, dedicated to enigmas and mysteries of history and
religion, has an article by Emanuela Cardarelli in its October 2009
edition (No. 12) on Andrew Chugg�s hypothesis that the supposed body of
St Mark in the Basilica di San Marco in Venice might actually be the
corpse of Alexander the Great. After discussing the matter in detail,
the article concludes that an investigation of the remains would be
|October 2009 - Reconstruction of the Death of Alexander|
Following the successful publication of Alexander the Great in India: A Reconstruction of Cleitarchus at the beginning of 2009, the next part of the reconstruction dealing with the death of Alexander and its aftermath is scheduled to be published at the beginning of 2010. Watch this column for further announcements.
New graves have recently
been found at Aegae (modern Vergina) in Macedon in the marketplace. The
archaeologist (Chrysoula Saatsoglou-Paliadeli, a professor of classical
archaeology at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki) is also now
speculating that the remains discovered in a nearby grave last year are
those of Heracles, Alexander's illegitimate son by Barsine. You can read
the full story here:
what we know about Heracles and Barsine may be read in the Barsine
chapter of my book on Alexander's Lovers. This chapter can be downloaded
free of charge as a pdf from here:
The find a year ago, now said to be the tomb of Heracles, comprised a large copper vessel containing a high quality gold wreath covering bones of a teenager in a golden vessel. It is shown in the adjoining image, which is a photo taken looking down into the copper vessel just after its discovery, when it was partly filled with water and a tangle of tree roots, but the gold of the wreath can be glimpsed beneath the surface.
We have designed an Alexander�s Tomb 2010 Calendar. Please click on the adjoining image of its cover to see thumbnails of all twelve months. If you would like to order a copy, please send an email via the Contacts page (here). The calendars will be printed individually to your order (takes about a week) in a high quality glossy 14� x 11.5� format, so the cost is �25 or $40 or �29 plus postage to your location from the UK. Your calendar can optionally be signed by Andrew Chugg. Payment is normally by Paypal.
This small coin is a Macedonian bronze of chalkon or dichalkon weight (2.3g). It depicts a Macedonian shield on its obverse with the royal starburst on the boss or episema. The reverse has a helm with the inscription BA. There is some dispute whether it was minted under Alexander the Great (BA = Basileos Alexandrou) or Antigonus Gonatus (BA = Basileos Antigonou) or during the Interregnum of 288-277BC (BA = BAsileos). Its interest in the matter of Alexander�s tomb is that it connects the shield with an eight-pointed starburst boss to Macedon during Alexander�s era, since this coin shield closely resembles the shield on the ancient sculpted block found embedded in the foundations of St Marks in Venice (see below)
|We are pleased to have introduced a new gallery under Images in the Main Menu for Alexander the Great related images (AtG Related). For its launch we have added engravings from 1685 and 1889 including: the Temple of Ammon, the order of march of the Persian army, portraits of Demosthenes and Aristotle, an Indian war elephant, an ancient Greek plaque commemorating the battle of Arbela (Gaugamela), a scythed chariot, a view of Persepolis in the 17th century�|
|Three photos of Andrew Chugg and the film crew on location in Alexandria during filming of the �Alexander�s Lost Tomb� documentary recently shown on National Geographic in the US and Channel 5 in the UK have been added to our Image Library on the Alexandria Now gallery at http://www.alexanderstomb.com/main/imageslibrary/alexandrianow/index.htm|
Coming Soon: Andrew Chugg�s latest book
Alexander the Great in India: A Reconstruction of Cleitarchus
The most influential account of the career of Alexander the Great was penned by Cleitarchus the son of Deinon, a Greek writing in Alexandria in the decades after Alexander�s death. Most of the surviving ancient texts on Alexander were more or less based upon his work, but every single copy of the original was discarded or destroyed in antiquity. To what extent might it be possible to reconstruct it from the secondary writings? This book argues that a considerable degree of reconstruction is feasible and demonstrates the point by presenting a full reconstruction of Cleitarchus� version of Alexander�s campaigns in India, the first time that this has been done.
Check back regularly for further announcements on its publication.
Atlantic Productions has produced a series of documentaries for National
Geographic TV on the theme of �Secrets of Egypt�. Andrew Chugg appears
in one of these, entitled �Alexander the Great�s Lost Tomb�, which was
premiered on the National Geographic channel in the USA at 20:00 ET on
Friday 21st November 2008. The series is also being shown on
Channel Five in the UK and the programme on Alexander�s Tomb is expected
to be broadcast early in 2009. Andrew was filmed on location in
Alexandria at the end of March 2008.
You can now
browse the catalogue of Andrew Chugg�s extensive library of books on
Alexandria and Alexander the Great at:
The second and final part of the new article by Andrew Chugg entitled �Where is Alexander?� on the subject of the possibility that Alexander�s remains are in Venice has been published in the August-September 2008 edition of �Archaeological Diggings� magazine.
Click HERE to visit the �Archaeological Diggings� magazine.
A new article by Andrew Chugg entitled �Where is Alexander?� on the subject of the ancient and possible current locations of the king�s remains has been published in the June-July 2008 edition of �Archaeological Diggings� magazine.
Click HERE to visit the �Archaeological Diggings� magazine.
A selection of photos from Andrew�s visit to Alexandria at the end of March is now available in the new Alexandria Now gallery under the Image Library menu item HERE.
|2nd February 2008|
In his new best-selling novel, The Venetian Betrayal, Steve Berry has used the hypothesis that St Mark�s corpse in Venice might actually be that of Alexander as part of his plot. In his Writer�s Note on page 472 Steve has observed, �The possibility that the remains of St Mark in Venice may actually be those of Alexander the Great is not mine. Andrew Michael Chugg in his excellent The Lost Tomb of Alexander the Great postulated the theory.� See http://www.steveberry.org/ for more details.
|8th January 2008|
The Proceedings of the Eroi, Eroismi, Eroizzazione conference (held 18th September 2006) have just been published by the University of Padua.
Andrew Chugg presented a paper entitled �Famous Alexandrian Mummies: The Adventures in Death of Alexander the Great and Saint Mark the Evangelist� at this conference and the full text has now been published (with 28 illustrations) in these Proceedings.
Archaeology Magazine has published a poll of 2200 visitors to its website in its January-February 2008 issue, which confirms that Alexander's is the missing tomb that people would most like to see found. Alexander�s tomb received 47% of the votes, with Genghis Khan�s and Cleopatra�s tied for second place on 18%. See http://www.archaeology.org/curiss/trenches/poll.html for more details.
|The article by Andrew Chugg on the authenticity of the Gold Porus Medallion, which recently came to light in Afghanistan/Pakistan, has been published in the September 2007 edition of the The Celator ancient coin journal. It shows that there are strong reasons to suspect that the coin is a forgery. Enquiries regarding copies of The Celator should be addressed to its editor Kerry Wetterstrom at email@example.com|
|16th June 2007|
|An article by Andrew Chugg on the authenticity of the Gold Porus Medallion, which recently came to light in Afghanistan/Pakistan, has been accepted by the ancient coin magazine, The Celator. It is likely to be published later this year. For a web article introducing this intriguing coin see www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/200606/ptolemy.s.alexandrian.postscript.htm|
|26th May 2007|
Andrew Chugg gave a two-hour lecture on the subject of The Lost Tomb of Alexander the Great to a well-attended meeting of the Sussex Egyptology Society in Worthing on Saturday 26th May 2007. Andrew�s presentation was well received by an enthusiastic audience, many of whom declared themselves fascinated by this remarkable detective story.
|29th April 2007|
A year after its launch Alexander�s Lovers has now been published in a second impression incorporating a range of minor corrections and mentioning some new details and additional strands of evidence. This has mainly been guided by feedback and discussions with some of the hundreds of readers of Alexander�s Lovers. See www.alexanderslovers.com
Andrew Chugg will be presenting on the subject of Alexander�s Tomb at the meeting of the Sussex Egyptology Society (SES) on Saturday 26th May 2007. The meeting will be held at Davison High School for Girls in Selborne Road, Worthing, Sussex at 14:00. Non-Members may attend for a fee of �3. For further information see http://www.egyptology-uk.com/
Andrew Chugg�s research on Alexander's tomb was mentioned on Sunday 15th April during the weekly broadcast of "Passepartout" (see http://www.passepartout.rai.it/), which is the leading art review programme on Italian TV and is presented by Philippe Daverio on channel RAI3. This edition was dedicated to Hellenistic art and Andrew�s work was introduced at the end of the episode, leaving hanging the question of the true identity of St.Mark's body.
|7th March 2007|
An article on The Journal of Alexander the Great by Andrew Chugg has now been published in the Ancient History Bulletin, Issue 19.3-4 (please click on the adjacent thumbnails for the contents page and the first page of the article). Fragments of Alexander's Royal Journal survive which describe his final illness and death, but historians have doubted their authenticity. This new article argues that the Journal must be genuine, because Ephippus, a man once employed by Alexander, wrote a commentary upon it. This leads to the conclusion that the King is likely to have died of a fever, rather than through poisoning. This issue of the Ancient History Bulletin can be ordered for $15 from its website at http://www.uwinnipeg.ca/faculty/classics/ahb.html
|19th January 2007|
There is a 6-page article on Alexander's tomb in the February 2007 edition of BBC Focus magazine, written by Robert Matthews, visiting Reader in Science at Aston University. It is available from 18th January 2007 in most larger UK Newsagents. Unfortunately the BBC Focus website at www.focusmag.co.uk only seems to have a two sentence summary: �Alexander the Great conquered the ancient world, but the whereabouts of his body remains unknown. A new theory, however, suggests that it might have been under our noses all this time.�
The cover of the magazine poses the question, �Alexander�s tomb found?� This is a reference to Andrew Chugg�s theory that the Alexandrians may have used Alexander�s body in creating their new tomb of St Mark, when the worship of Alexander was made illegal by the Emperor Theodosius in AD391. The article points out that the body, said to be St Mark, was taken to Venice in AD828 and that it currently lies in the Basilica di San Marco in that city, hence the comment that Alexander�s body may have been beneath our noses.
The article seems fairly balanced and includes short interviews with (and other quotes from) both Andrew Chugg and Nicholas Saunders. It also quotes Jean-Yves Empereur, the head of the CEA in Alexandria, on the matter of the location of the famous tomb in Alexandria.
This article contains the first publication in print of Andrew Chugg�s recent suggestion that a visual inspection of the remains in the Basilica di San Marco may suffice to resolve the question of their identity, since Alexander is said to have suffered distinctive wounds that damaged his skeleton (leg and chest).The article concludes that until the Catholic Church grants permission to inspect the bones �the Venice Connection must remain only a theory. But it is just possible that today thousands of visitors to Venice pass within metres of the remains of one of the greatest figures of the ancient world.�
|30th October 2006|
An article on The Journal of Alexander the Great by Andrew Chugg is scheduled to be published in the Ancient History Bulletin, Issue 19.3-5 in November or December 2006. It shows that the surviving fragments of Alexander�s Royal Journal are very probably authentic. This means that the King is likely to have died of a fever, rather than through poisoning. This issue of the Ancient History Bulletin can be ordered for $15 from its website at http://www.uwinnipeg.ca/faculty/classics/ahb.html
This article was the subject of a newspaper story in the Independent in 2005, which can be found here: http://news.independent.co.uk/world/science_technology/article304278.ece
|10th October 2006|
|Andrew presented his paper on Famous Alexandrian Mummies at the Eroi, Eroismi, Eroizzazione conference in the Palazzo del Bo of the University of Padua on 18th September 2006. The photos were taken during the presentation and during the ensuing question and answer session. Andrew�s paper will be published in the Conference Proceedings, but this will take about a year. Further information will be posted in due course. Andrew was also able to travel the short distance to Venice to visit the Basilica di San Marco and the Cloister of St Apollonia (which houses the starburst sculpture extracted from the foundations of the main apse of the Basilica in the early 1960�s).|
|18-19 September 2006|
|Andrew has accepted an invitation to give a presentation on the story of Alexander�s tomb at the Tombs of the Greek Heroes conference to be held at the University of Padua in Northern Italy on 18th-19th September 2006. Andrew�s presentation will be entitled, Famous Alexandrian Mummies: The Adventures in Death of Alexander the Great and St Mark the Evangelist.|
|28th August 2006
Programme now available for the conference �Eroi, Eroismi, Eroizzazioni
Dalla Grecia antica a Padova e Venezia� (Tombs of the Greek Heroes) to
be held at the University of Padua in Italy, 18th-19th
September 2006, and at which Andrew Chugg will present on �Famous
Alexandrian Mummies: The Adventures in Death of Alexander the Great and
St Mark the Evangelist�.
|1st June 2006|
published, Alexander�s Lovers, the second book by Andrew Chugg, which
presents an exploration of Alexander�s character through the mirror of
the lives of the people with whom he pursued romantic relationships,
including his friend Hephaistion, his queen Roxane, his mistress Barsine
and Bagoas the Eunuch. It incorporates much new research and tells a
more complete version of their biographies than has previously been
For more information please visit www.alexanderslovers.com
|Tues 9 May 2006||
|How to find Andrew Chugg�s lecture on the Lost Tomb of Alexander the Great in the Department of Archaeology of the University of Bristol at 18:45 on 9th May 2006.|
|A large red asterisk on the adjoining map marks the location. Visitors are welcome for a fee of one UK pound, to be paid to the Treasurer of the Egypt Society of Bristol at the door.|
|Lecture, The Lost Tomb of Alexander the Great by Andrew Chugg at the Egypt Society of Bristol.|
|Andrew Chugg will be giving a lecture on "The Lost Tomb of Alexander the Great" to the Egypt Society of Bristol (ESB) on Tuesday 9th May 2006 at 18:45 in Lecture Room 1, Department of Archaeology, University of Bristol, 43 Woodland Road, Clifton, Bristol. Non-Members also welcome.|
|16th March 2006||
Please click here for more information.
|Cleitarchus of Alexandria|
|A synthesis of the History of Alexander by Cleitarchus of Alexandria (first six books) has now been published on this site. It can be downloaded at this link.|
|12th August 2005||
|Now available direct to USA, France, Canada, Germany, Japan & UK|
The Lost Tomb of Alexander the Great is now available directly within a few days to customers in the USA at Amazon.com as well as on the UK, French, Canadian, German and Japanese Amazon sites. To find it at Amazon.com search on tomb chugg or try this link.
|7th August 2005|
|Article in Independent on Sunday|
|An article was published in the 7 August 2005 edition of the Independent on Sunday (UK national Sunday newspaper) about the forthcoming publication of a paper by Andrew Chugg on the subject of Alexander's Journal and its implications for the cause of Alexander's Death. See our Death of Alexander page for more details.|
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